Carramore International Limited
Carramore International Limited




The European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road

Air Waybill. The transport document for airfreight, but it is not ‘Title to Goods’, i.e. ownership of an AWB does not confer ownership of the shipment.

BEIS (The UK Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Trade)brings together responsibilities for business, industrial strategy, science, innovation, energy, and climate change.

Bill of Lading. The transport document for seafreight, and is ‘Title to Goods’, i.e. ownership of an original Bill of Lading confers ownership of the goods, although in practical terms ownership is only relevant after customs clearance.

In finance, a bond is an instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders. It is a debt security, under which the issuer owes the holders a debt.

Carramore raise bonds to cover the duty and tax liabilities of imports, where these liabilities will be subject to an exemption. However, since the process of gaining a duty and tax exemption can take a long time, the bond allows the import to be cleared prior to receipt of the exemption. When the exemption is received and entered into the system the bond can then be released. Bonds can only be used one time in this process.

The Civil Aviation Authority is the UK public body responsible for aviation matters. Their remit includes cargo security and to ensure that dangerous goods be carried in accordance with the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Doc 9284 Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air.

Cargo Aircraft Only
The maximum amount of dangerous goods allowed on a cargo aircraft.  UN approved packaging and a DGN is required. A label indicating that such packages may only be loaded on a cargo aircraft must be affixed to each package.

See Dangerous Goods (Hazmat) for further information.

Carriage Insurance Paid to a Named Place (also see Incoterms).

CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) is an international agreement between governments, which came into force on 1st July 1975. Its aim is to ensure that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants does not threaten their survival, and is legally binding on the 180 ‘Parties’ who have ‘joined’ CITES.

The trade is diverse, ranging from live animals and plants to a vast array of wildlife products derived from them, including food products, exotic leather goods, wooden musical instruments, timber, tourist curios, medicines and cells. Levels of exploitation of some animal and plant species are high and the trade in them, together with other factors, such as habitat loss, is capable of heavily depleting their populations and even bringing some species close to extinction. Many wildlife species in trade are not endangered, but the existence of an agreement to ensure the sustainability of the trade is important in order to safeguard these resources for the future.

Some of the cells we supply are covered by CITES, and so an export licence must be obtained by Carramore from the relevant UK government Ministry - DEFRA

The CMR Convention (full title Convention on the Contract for the International Carriage of Goods by Road) is a United Nations convention signed in Geneva on 19 May 1956. It relates to various legal issues concerning transportation of cargo, predominantly by trucks, by road. It has been ratified by the majority of European states.

Commercial Invoice
see Invoice

Commodity Code
see Harmonized Commodity Description

Conditions of Purchase
A detailed set of terms and conditions defining the obligations and responsibilities of buyer and seller.

Conditions of Sale
A detailed set of terms and conditions defining the obligations and responsibilities of seller and buyer. For example see Carramore conditions of sales.

Person or organisation named by the shipper/consignor in the transportation documents (such as an Air Waybill or Bill of Lading) as the party to whom a consignment is addressed at the country of destination. The consignee is considered to be the owner of the consignment for the purpose of filing the customs declaration, and for paying duties and taxes. Formal ownership (title) of the consignment, however, transfers to the consignee only upon payment of the seller's invoice in full.

Dangerous Goods Note
The DGN is a transport document that gives details about the contents of a consignment to carriers, receiving authorities and forwarders.

Delivered Duty Paid (also see Incoterms).

Delivered Duty Unpaid (also see Incoterms).

Department for Environment Food & Rural Affairs, also see CITES

Department for Transport (UK) also see Air Cargo Security.

See Dangerous Goods Note

The UK Department for International Trade. This department helps businesses export and grow into global markets. It also helps overseas companies locate and grow in the UK.

Dry Ice
Is the solid form of carbon dioxide, used for keeping product frozen. At atmospheric pressure dry ice sublimates (changes from solid to gas phase directly without an intervening liquid phase) at -78.5C, so is suitable for maintaining ultra-freezer temperatures during long shipments.

Note: Dry shippers containing UN3373 or UN2814 are subject to separate IATA requirements.
see Infectious Substances

Dry Shipper (IATA definition)
Insulated packagings containing refrigerated liquid nitrogen fully absorbed in a porous material and intended for transport, at low temperature, of non-dangerous products are not subject to these regulations provided the design of the insulated packaging would not allow the build-up of pressure within the container and would not permit the release of any liquid nitrogen irrespective of the orientation of the insulated packaging.

A tax levied on importation.

The UK Export Control Organisation is part of DIT and issues licences for controlling the export of strategic goods.

Strategic goods include:

• military equipment

• dual-use goods - goods that can be used for both civil and military purposes

• radioactive sources


The European Inspections database specified in legislation to provide EEA National Competent Authorities (such as the MHRA in the UK) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) with an overview of the status of pharmaceutical manufacturers, and subsequently throughout the supply chain. - EudraGMDP website

Excepted Quantity
A small quantity of dangerous goods which do not require UN approved packaging or a DGN, usually up to 30ml or 30g per bottle and up to 500ml or 500g per package.

See Dangerous Goods (Hazmat) for further information.

Excise Tax
An Inland tax levied on specific forms of goods, e.g. ethanol, and is normally specific, so much per unit of measure. Carramore has a customs approved warehouse so we can buy, receive and export ethanol free from excise duty.

Ex-Works (also see Incoterms)

Export Licence
There are controls on exports of military or paramilitary goods, technology, plants and animals, medicines and chemicals. Licence requirements may depend on the potential use of the item – e.g. if it has a military application (usually referred to as dual-use goods) and where you are exporting to.

Free Carrier (also see Incoterms)

Full container load, a shipping container usually sent by sea, which contains cargo from one shipper to one consignee

Gel Pack
An ice pack of refrigerant gel

Good Distribution Practice of medicinal products for human use’ are guidelines from the European Commission (current version 05 November 2013) and are based on Article 84 and Article 85b(3) of Directive 2001/83/EC, which is further enabled in the UK through legislation.

A GDP certificate is a pre-requisite for receipt of a Wholesale Dealer’s Authorisation (WDA) which permits the purchase and distribution of medicines for human use.

Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (HS) of tariff nomenclature is an internationally standardized system of names and numbers for classifying traded products developed and maintained by the World Customs Organization (WCO) (formerly the Customs Co-operation Council), an independent intergovernmental organization with over 170 member countries, based in Brussels, Belgium.

HM (Her Majesty’s) Revenue & Customs, the UK customs and tax authority

Home Office
The lead UK government ministry for immigration and passports, drugs policy, crime, counter-terrorism and policing.

The effective control of chemicals used in the illicit manufacture of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances is an important tool in combating drug trafficking, and in the UK this control is managed by The Home Office. These chemicals, known as 'precursors', also have legitimate uses.

International Air Transport Association

IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations
Annual publication setting out the rules for the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air. (see Dangerous Goods (Hazmat))

International Civil Aviation Organisation

Import Declaration Form, a document which may have to be raised in-country prior or after importation

International Maritime Organization – the United Nations specialized agency with responsibility for the safety and security of shipping and the prevention of marine pollution by ships

International Maritime Dangerous Goods code, the regulations covering the transport of dangerous goods by sea

The International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) rules for the use of domestic and international trade [Knowledge Base]

Inspection Agency
A company appointed to manage the import inspection procedure. Many countries have a pre- or post-shipment inspection process, which may: ensure products conform to standards, have the appropriate commodity codes applied in order that the correct duty rate is applied, and ensure precious foreign exchange is conserved.

Research projects are usually exempt from inspection processes, not least because the materials purchased are for their own consumption, and not being resold on the open market. However, in 2012 and 2103 Pre-Export Verification of Conformity (PVoC) to Standards Programme was introduced in the East African community. Exemptions have to be sought and obtained for each institute, or group of projects, and an exemption might only be from the onerous process, but not necessarily from the cost.

A document prepared by a seller of goods or services listing all such items sold and presented to the buyer for payment.

A contract between an insurance company and a company which provides for a money payment in case of covered loss or damage.

Known Cargo
Cargo which has been thoroughly checked and securely stored prior to loading on an aircraft; this is to ensure that it does not carry a prohibited article, such as an incendiary or explosive device.

For more details see Air Cargo Security

Known Consignor
see Air Cargo Security

Less than container load, a shipping container usually sent by sea, which contains cargo from more than one shipper and/or to more than one consignee. Used when cargo needs to be moved by sea, for size or cost reasons, but there is insufficient cargo to make an FCL economic

Limited Quantity
A quantity of dangerous goods which do not require UN approved packaging usually up to 500ml or 500g per bottle and up to 1L or 1kg per package. A DGN is required.
See Dangerous Goods (Hazmat) for further information.

Lithium Batteries
Disposable (primary) batteries that have lithium metal or lithium compounds as an anode. See Lithium Batteries in our Knowledge Base.

The MHRA (Medical and Healthcare Regulatory Agency) is an executive agency of the Department of Health, which is the government Ministry responsible for health in England, although the MHRA remit covers the whole of the UK. They are responsible for regulating all medicines and medical devices in the UK by ensuring they work and are acceptably safe. Regulation covers both manufacture and distribution.

Notify Party
Name and contact details of the party indicated in the transport document to be notified by the shipping company (i.e Shipping line, Airline or their agent) of the arrival of a shipment.  This applies to Bills of Lading for sea shipments and Air Waybills for airfreight shipments. The notify party could be the buyer, the importer or the clearing agent.

If you have a clearing agent then it is advisable that they are named as the Notify Party. Absence of a Notify Party often results in clearance being delayed and storage costs incurred.

Passenger Aircraft Quantity
The maximum amount of dangerous goods allowed on a passenger aircraft. (may also be loaded on a cargo aircraft). UN approved packaging and a DGN is required.

See Dangerous Goods (Hazmat) for further information.

Chemicals used in the illicit manufacture of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances are known as 'precursors', and also have legitimate uses. They are legally used in bio-research and within a wide variety of industrial processes and consumer products, such as medicines, flavourings and fragrances.

Regulation of precursors covers 23 chemical substances which are divided into 3 categories:

• Category 1 covers the most sensitive substances (the 'key' drug precursors). e.g. Ephedrine

• Category 2 covers less sensitive substances and pre-precursors. e.g. Potassium Permanganate

• Category 3 covers bulk chemicals that can have different types of uses in the manufacturing process (for example, as feedstock, solvents, or impurities removers). e.g. Acetone, Sulphuric acid.

Carramore International hold registrations from the UK Home Office for Category 2 and Category 3 precursors. Depending on the destination country an export licence may be required.

Proforma Invoice
A quotation setting out the price for the goods and services requested by the buyer, against which a purchase order will be requested. It is also a preliminary invoice, and so allow some customs processes to be started in advance of shipment - including IDF, and also payment to be processed. It will always be followed by an invoice/commercial invoice at shipment.

Project Master List
This is a Carramore supplied product data list, sorted by categories, brands and alphabetically, based on your project or a group of projects

The IATA packing instruction for UN2814

The IATA packing instruction for UN3373

The IATA packing instruction for Dry Ice

PVoC (Pre-Export Verification of Conformity to Standards Programme)
See Inspection Agency

See Proforma invoice

SDS (previously known as MSDS)
The Safety Data Sheet is a form with data regarding the properties of a particular substance and is intended to provide users and emergency personnel with procedures for handling or working with that substance in a safe manner. Check on country differences and when interpreting an SDS note that Transport information is always in section 14.

Consignor, exporter, or seller (who may be the same or different parties) named in the shipping documents as the party responsible for initiating a shipment, and who may also bear the freight cost.

Certain hazardous chemicals require additional packing within tins before being offered for air transport.

Transit International Routier. The Convention on International Transport of Goods Under Cover of TIR Carnets (TIR Convention) was made at Geneva on 14 November 1975 to simplify and harmonise the administrative formalities of international road transport.

Transportation Security Administration (US) also see Air Cargo Security

UN Approved Packaging
Packaging which has been tested, approved and marked as meeting the requirements covering the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air. They include boxes, drums, cylinders and various other packaging.

United Nations Commission on International Trade Law

Dry Ice

Infectious substance, affecting humans

Infectious substance, affecting animals

Biological substance, Category B

Value Added Tax, a form of sales tax, which is ad valorem, in proportion to the value

Wholesale Dealer’s Authorisation. Medicinal products manufactured in the UK must be produced on a site that holds an appropriate manufacturer's licence (ML). Any company or individual wishing to wholesale deal (defined as selling, supplying or procuring to anyone other than the end-user) medicinal products within the EU must hold a WDA.

The administrative activities for issuing and maintaining manufacturer's and wholesale dealer's licences are carried out by the Licensing Section in the Inspection, Enforcement and Standards Division of the MHRA and in fulfilling its role the Section works very closely with the Medicines Inspectorate.

Licences are viewable by the public on the EudraGMDP web site, and Carramore’s licence is WL 42638.

Wet Ice
A pack of frozen crushed or frozen cubed water, but used by Carramore to mean gel pack

49 CFR
The US code of Federal Regulations covering Transport (Title 49)